The goal of my research is to advance pharmacy practice by enhancing pharmacy operations and facilitating adoption of patient care services. My primary research interests can be categorized into three areas: (a) effect of organizational and social factors on innovation adoption, sustainability, and abandonment of pharmacy-based patient-care services, (b) pharmacists’ roles in public health and primary care, and (c) program evaluation in health services.

Most of my research has been in the area of pharmacy-based immunization services ranging from adoption to sustainability to abandonment of immunization services. Currently, my studies focus on specific immunization services including Herpes Zoster, Human Papillomavirus (HPV), and pneumococcal vaccines in community pharmacies. In addition, since 2013, I have partnered with Alabama Department of Senior Services to implement a Medicare outreach program and the C.A.R.E.S. Pharmacy Network.

My Research

My research program applies various organizational theories and management principles with the goal to optimize organizational performance through innovation adoption and evaluation of various types of pharmacy-based innovations including immunization, naloxone dispensing, biometric screening and medication therapy management services. While much of my research experience is related to pharmacy-based immunization services, concepts related to adoption and implementation of innovations are transferrable and applicable to other organizations and other innovations.


My research programs can be classified into two areas: access to care among older adults and innovation adoption.


Nalox-Comm: Addressing the Opioid Epidemic Through Community Pharmacy Engagement: A Multistate Study

Nalox-Comm training module development will take place in two phases. In Phase 1, formative data on potential Nalox-Comm content will be collected from 40 pharmacists, 50 patients at risk of opioid overdose, and 50 caregivers of individuals at risk of overdose from pharmacies located in rural counties with high rates of opioid-related overdose deaths in 4 states (AL, IA, NC, WI).

Designing an Intelligent Decision Assistant for E-Healthcare Decision Tools for Older Adults

The research goal of the project is to design, develop, and evaluate intelligent decision assistants (IDA) that provides Medicare Plan Finder users with user-adaptive, context-aware, goal-oriented decision strategy support.

Developing a rural community pharmacy practice-based research network

This project is a multi-state partnership (AL, MS, AR, NC, and SC). We propose to create the first multi-state, rural community pharmacy practice-based research network (PBRN) called the Rural Research Alliance of Community Pharmacies (RURAL-CP). The mission of RURAL-CP is to reduce rural health disparities by supporting high-quality implementation research with rural community pharmacies. RURAL-CP will be a discovery lab wherein researchers and pharmacies work together to evaluate whether interventions and practices developed in urban/suburban settings can be effectively implemented in community pharmacies in rural settings. RURAL-CP will include a mix of independent, grocery store, and regional chain pharmacies. Pharmacies will also represent a range of rurality, from isolated non-metro rural areas, small towns, and larger, micropolitan rural areas.

Pharmacy education to improve immunization standards

Through funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, I partner with the National Community Pharmacists Association to develop new and innovative education programs for pharmacists and technicians, ultimately improving vaccination processes and standards, and potentially saving lives through increased vaccination rates. 

Medicare Outreach Program

This project, funded by Alabama Department of Senior Services, develops an on-line training module for pharmacy students to become State Health Insurance & Assistant Program counselors and offers assistance workshops for Medicare beneficiaries in Alabama.

C.A.R.E.S. Pharmacy Network

The Certified Aging Resource Educated Specialists (C.A.R.E.S.) Pharmacy Network was formed in 2015 to help increase the access of low income subsidies for Medicare beneficiaries. It is endorsed by the Alabama Department of Senior Services and managed by the Harrison School of Pharmacy. The primary goal of the network is to create and maintain an efficient and effective referral system from the pharmacy network members to the local Aging and Disability Resource Centers (ADRCs) that will help screen for eligibility for assistance programs.

This study is funded by Alabama Department of Senior Services.

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